Tuesday, January 02, 2024

Acts 1:19; the adjective πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν

To review what has just happened;  Judas has obtained or purchased a field, and has died there, in an apparently harrowing manner.

καὶ γνωστὸν ἐγένετο πᾶσιν τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὥστε κληθῆναι τὸ χωρίον ἐκεῖνο τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ αὐτῶν Ἀκελδαμά, τοῦτ’ ἔστιν, χωρίον αἵματος―

and known it became to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem, so that that field was called in their own dialect 'Akeldama', which is, field of blood -  

The first phrase is

καὶ γνωστὸν ἐγένετο πᾶσιν τοῖς κατοικοῦσιν Ἱερουσαλήμ

The verb form ἐγένετο is parsed as 3-S, aorist middle indicative, of γίνομαι, 'I become, happen'.  Here the subject must be understood as referring to an event in the previous verse, i.e., 'the thing that happened, Judas's death'.

So Judas's death became known - to whom?  The 'to' leads to a dative, and in this case it is plural: to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem.

Note the somewhat irregular, third-declension conjugation of the adjective πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν, 'all, every, whole':

                                     Masculine         Feminine         Neuter 


    Nom.                         πᾶς                     πᾶσα                 πᾶν 

    Gen.                           πάντος              πάσης                πάντος 

    Dat.                            παντί                 πάσῃ                  παντί

    Acc.                            πάντα               πᾶσαν                πᾶν  


    Nom.                         πάντες               πᾶσαι                πάντα 

    Gen.                           πάντων             πασῶν               πάντων 

    Dat.                            πᾶσι(ν)              πάσαις               πᾶσι(ν)

    Acc.                            πάντας              πάσας                πάντα 

Remember that 

(1) all neuter nominative forms are identical to the corresponding (singular or plural) form,

(2) the masculine singular accusative form is identical to the neuter plural nominative/accusative form, and

(3) the masculine and neuter forms are identical in the genitive and dative, both singular and plural.

Ἱερουσαλήμ is understood to be in the genitive case here ('the inhabitants of Jerusalem'), although this word is indeclinable.  We'll look at the two Greek versions of the city name in the next post, followed by a discussion of the remainder of the verse.

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